transparent.gif (49 bytes) top_navi1_on.gif (308 bytes)top_navi2_off.gif (713 bytes)top_navi3_off.gif (608 bytes)top_navi4_off.gif (350 bytes) transparent.gif (49 bytes)
pages_logo1.gif (206 bytes)
pages_logo2.gif (1699 bytes)
ei_illu_verti_navi.gif (3139 bytes)
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
verti_navi_on.gif (74 bytes)
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 1999
verti_navi_on.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2000
verti_navi_on.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2001
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2002
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2003
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2004
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2005
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2006/2007
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Volume 2008/2009
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)
Thematic Issues
verti_navi_off.gif (74 bytes)






Although to outsiders the Nordic countries may appear culturally homogeneous because of high level of collective welfare and social harmony, this article exposes several differences in adherence to collectivistic cultural values that stratified a panel of 33 managers and executives from Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. Using a longitudinal multivariate case study method this research identified four differences in managerial role enactment that diversified the informants at cross-national level. These included: 1) The unwillingness to use organizational power to attain the goals sought, 2) the predilection for participative style of decision-making, 3) the subjugation of leadership’s authority to group consensus, and 4) the empowerment of organizational agents at lower organizational levels. The results show that the Swedish and Norwegian informants were the most devoted adherents of organizational egalitarianism who scored high on the above four indicators of collectivistic values. On the other hand, the Finnish and Danish participants revealed predilection for more individualistic culture by emphasizing the leadership’s autonomy for power wielding and making of important decisions in order to steer the organizations in desired direction. These findings may help international collaborators to manage the within-culture social differences and reduce the conflict potentials between the followers of collectivistic and individualistic managerial ideologies.


Management - Scandinavia - Norway - Denmark - Sweden - Finland - Collectivism


Johanna LUDVIGSEN is a Senior Research Officer at The Institute of Transport Economics in Oslo, Norway.


All work published in The International Scope Review is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any manner or in any medium - unless written consent  is given by The Social Capital Foundation represented by its President, unless the author's name and the one of The International Scope Review as the first publication medium appear on the work or the excerpt, and unless no charge is made for the copy containing the work or excerpt.

Any demands for obtaining consent for reproduction should be sent to

DOWNLOAD (That will display the Acrobat Reader Plug-in in your browser window. to come back to this page , press the BACK button in the toolbar of your browser.)

get_acrobat_reader.gif (712 bytes)

Attention, this document is an Adobe Acrobat document.
You will need to download the Acrobat Plugin to view it.



 Copyright  The Social Capital Foundation 1998-2006, All Rights Reserved

[ top ]